The Ten Commandments

Treylyyz gans Wella Kerew c1690 / Translated by William Rowe c. 1690.


 {My transcription is in KK++ a slightly enhanced version of Kernewek Kemmyn. Mostly to get plain 'ol KK change all the <z>'s to <s>'s, final unstressed <-e>'s to <-a>'s, <Duw> to <Dyw> and <-vyth> to <-vydh>. KK spells <zy> either <sy> or <jy> and if we knew exactly how to pronounce this word we'd understand a great deal more than we do now about Middle Cornish phonology!}


EXODUS Chapter 20

1. [Ha'n arloedh a leveris oll an lavarow-ma, ow kewsel yndelma:]
 
2. Tho ve an Arleth da Deew Yth ov vy an Arloedh dha Dhuw I am the Lord thy God
reg da dry meaze veza pow Egypt [neb a] wrug dha dhri [yn-]mes a-ves a Bow Ejyp [who] did bring thee forth out of the Land of Egypt
ha veza choy o chee gossel. hag a-ves a['n] chi [le mayth] es[te]-zy goestel and out of the house [where] you were in servitude lit. "a hostage or bonded-labourer"
 
3. Na'ra chee gowas na hene Deew poz vee. Na wra zy gavoez na-hen Duw mez vy Do not get no other God but me Not very grammatical!
 
4. Na'ra cheel geel theeze dah honen Na wra zy gul dhis dha honan Do not make for thyself
image a wethan na mean imaj a wydhenn nag a ven (any) image of wood ("trees") nor of stone
ew havel da traveth ol [hag] yw haval dhe dra-vyth-oll that is like unto anything at all
eze en Neav a warrah eus y'n nev a-wartha that is in the heaven(s) above
na en 'oare a ollaz nag y'n nor a-woelez nor in the earth below
na en Dowre ezen dadn en 'oare. nag y'n dowr uzi'n-dann an nor nor in the water that is under the earth
 
5. Na ra chee pledgee thenze, Na wra zy plegye [dhe]dhons i Do not bend to themi.e. "bow down to them"
Rag ve da Deew bonegath Rag my, dha Dhuw Bennigez For I, thy Blessed God AV "For I the Lord thy God am a jealous god," which Rowe seems to have been unable to translate.
vedn boaze engros gen a chee a vynn boz engryz genes zy shall be angry with thee
ha compoza cabm withe an zeera ha kompoeze kamm-weyth an sire and "correct" the mis-deeds of the father
war an flehaz da an dridga war an fleghez dhe'n dryze upon the children unto the third
ha bodwerha heenath ha['n] bezwere henedh and the fourth generation
a rima ne geeze ort a hara a['n] re-na nag uzi orth ow hare of those who do not love me
 
6. ha shoya bednath war villiaw ha "showye" benneth war [an] vilyow and show blessing on the thousands AV "shewing mercy unto"
a eze ort a kara ha gweetha o lavarow. uzi orth ow hare ha gwithe ow lavarow who are loving me and keeping my commandments lit. "words/sayings"
 
7. Na'ra komerras hannaw Deew en vaine Na wra kemmerez hanow Duw yn "veyn" Do not take the name of God in vain
rag na vedn an Arleth gon cawas en paraves rag na vynn an Arloedh agan kavoez yn paradhis for the Lord will not receive us in paradise
rag comeras e Hanow en vaine. rag kemmerez y hanow yn "veyn" for taking his name in vain
 
8. Pedeere da gwetha an Zeeleva bonegath; Preder dhe withe an Sulve bennigez Take care to keep the Sabboth blessed
 
9. whee jorna chee ra geele wheal hwegh jorne ty a wra gul hwel six days thou shalt do work
ha geele a peth ez theeze tha weele. ha gul an pyth eus dhis dhe wul and do that which thou hast to do
 
10. Rag an zithvaz deeth Rag an seythvez dydh For the seventh day
ew an Zeele an Arleth Deew: yw an Sul a'n Arloedh Duw is the Sunday/Sabboth of the Lord God
eta na ra geall zorth veth a wheele, ynno na wra gul sort-vyth a hwel on ("in") it do not do any sort of work
chee na tha vab, na verth, [na] ty, na dha vab, na [dha] vyrgh, (neither) thou nor thy son, nor thy daughter,
na da dean, na da voze, na dha dhen, na dha vowes nor thy man(servant), nor thy maid(servant)
na gattal, na da dean anketh, na [dha] jatel, na dha dhen anketh, nor thy cattle, nor thy freeman
na dra eza goye da vozou. na tra uzi a-ji dha fosow nor anything that is within thy walls
 
11. [Rag yn hwe' tydh an Arloedh a wrug an nev ha'n nor, an mor ha pubtra-oll eus ynne i, hag yn seythvez dydh y hwruge powes. Rag henna an Arloedh a vennigas an Sulve, ha'y soenas.]
 
12. Gwra mere da zeerah ha da Dama, Gwra meur dha sire ha'th dame Honour thy father and thy mother lit. "make large"
malga da dethow booze heer may alse dha dhydhyow boz hir that thy days might be long
en powe reg an Taze da Deew ry theeze. y'n pow a wrug an Taz dha Dhuw ri dhis in the land that the Father thy God did give thee
 
13. Na'ra chee latha den'eth Na wra zy ladhe den-vyth Do not kill anyone
 
14. Na'ra chee gorwetha gen gwreg tha contrevack. Na wra zy gorwedhe gans gwreg dha gentrevek Do not lie with thy neighbour's wife
 
15. Na'ra chee ladra. Na wra zy ladre Do not steal
 
16. Na'ra chee boaz faulz teaze bedn tha contrevack. Na wra zy boz fals tuz (tavez?) [er]bynn dha gentrevek Do not be false people?/tongue? against thy neighbour AV "bear false witness"
 
17. Na'ra chee covityah gwreeg da contrevack, Na wra zy kovaytye gwreg dha gentrevek Do not covet thy neighbour's wife
na'm chee covityah choye da contrevack, na (?) zy kovaytye chi dha gentrevek nor (should???) you covet thy neighbour's house
na e gossel, na e voze, na e edgan, na e varth, nag y woestel, nag y vowes, nag y odyon, nag y vargh nor his hired servant, nor his maid, nor his ox, nor his horse
na traveth al beaw a eve. na tra-vyth-oll a biwe ev nor anything at all that he might own
 
Afterwards he concludes them thus:- {not in the Bible (?) possibly from the Book of Common Prayer}
 
99. Deewe, A comere Massy waren A Dhuw kemmer mersi warnon O God have mercy on us
ha screffa ol da Lavarow ha skrife oll dha lavarow and write all thy sayings
ett a gon Colonow. y'gan kolonnow in our hearts
An dela ra bo. Yndella re bo Thus may it be"Amen"

Sources of the original Late Cornish text:
http://www.kernewek.com; and
An Kernewek a Wella Rowe gans Rod Lyon, Kesva an Taves Kernewek (no date or place of publication)